Simply put, if you need an exact rule
Cliches are BAD
Tropes are GOOD
This is not always the case though. Cliches are bad because the audience is going to be reminded of all the other times they experienced that same cliche.
If you can manage to write a cliche in a new way that brings new emotions to the audience, then go for it.
Tropes are a bit more generalized and are often used to create portrayals of a character that are easily recognizable, like an old man with a beard being wise.
They don’t bring as much of the emotional baggage, but tropes can become a cliche so be careful.